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A Guide to Learning and Thinking Differences

If your child is struggling in school or at home, you may wonder why — and what you can do to help. One in five kids in the U.S. have learning and thinking differences like dyslexia and ADHD. 

Learn what can lead kids to struggle with reading, writing, math, focus, and more. Explore key resources that can help you support your child. And discover tools that can help you understand your child’s challenges.

FAMILY RESOURCES
About learning differences
Learning differences like dyslexia, dyscalculia, and ADHD impact learning and everyday life. They affect reading, math, writing, and focus. Learn more.

What are learning and thinking differences? »

What is dyslexia? »

What is ADHD? »

Kids with multiple learning and thinking differences: What you need to know »

Common myths about learning and thinking differences »

Special education basics
Special education refers to a range of services that help kids with disabilities learn. Kids who qualify can get an Individualized Education Program (IEP). Learn more.

What is special education? »

Finding out if your child is eligible for special education »

Special education: Federal law vs. state law »

Understanding IEPs »

The difference between IEPs and 504 plans »

Evaluations and diagnosis
Families often feel unsure about having their child evaluated. You might be concerned about your child being labeled. You may question the need for testing. But taking this step is key to getting the support your child needs to thrive — at home and at school. Learn more.

Deciding on an evaluation: 5 common questions »

The difference between a school identification and a clinical diagnosis »

FAQs about school evaluations »

What is an evaluation for special education? »

6 benefits of having your child evaluated »

Parent-teacher conferences and advocacy
Challenges, accommodations, and advocacy
Discover how providing the right support can help kids with learning differences thrive. Learn about effective support strategies and get tips for overcoming challenges.

What is assistive technology? »

Executive function challenges and learning: 6 ways to help your grade-schooler »

The difference between accommodations and modifications »

8 steps to advocating for your child »

Homework challenges and strategies »

Hear from parents of kids with learning differences

Video Playlist
1/4 videos
1
Talking About Dyslexia: Lola Alvarez Shares Her Story
Talking About Dyslexia: Lola Alvarez Shares Her Story
2
Fear of Reading: Dyslexia and the Fear Factor in the Brain
Fear of Reading: Dyslexia and the Fear Factor in the Brain
3
Does Your 2nd Grader Understand Three-Digit Numbers? - Milestones from GreatSchools
Does Your 2nd Grader Understand Three-Digit Numbers? - Milestones from GreatSchools
4
In It | Why We Cry in IEP Meetings
In It | Why We Cry in IEP Meetings